Prism Adaptation (PA) is used to alleviate spatial neglect. We combined immersive virtual reality with a depth-sensing camera to develop virtual prism adaptation therapy (VPAT), which block external visual cues and easily quantify and monitor errors than conventional PA. We conducted a feasibility study to investigate whether VPAT can induce behavioral adaptations by measuring after-effect and identifying which cortical areas were most significantly activated during VPAT using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Fourteen healthy subjects participated in this study. The experiment consisted of four sequential phases (pre-VPAT, VPAT-10°, VPAT-20°, and post-VPAT). To compare the most significantly activated cortical areas during pointing in different phases against pointing during the pre-VPAT phase, we analyzed changes in oxyhemoglobin concentration using fNIRS during pointing. The pointing errors of the virtual hand deviated to the right-side during early pointing blocks in the VPAT-10° and VPAT-20° phases. There was a left-side deviation of the real hand to the target in the post-VPAT phase, demonstrating after-effect. The most significantly activated channels during pointing tasks were located in the right hemisphere, and possible corresponding cortical areas included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontal eye field. In conclusion, VPAT may induce behavioral adaptation with modulation of the dorsal attentional network.
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