Etiologic distribution of isolated trochlear palsy: Analysis of 1020 patients and literature review

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Abstract

Background and Purpose: Trochlear palsy is the most common cause of vertical diplopia. The etiologies of trochlear palsy have shown a large discrepancy among studies. This study aimed to establish the clinical features and underlying etiologies of isolated trochlear palsy by recruiting the patients from all departments in a referral-based university hospital. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 1258 patients who had a confirmed diagnosis of isolated trochlear palsy at all departments of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea, from 2003 to 2020. We also compared the proportion of etiologies with that of the patients pooled from previous studies. Results: The most common etiology was congenital (n = 330, 32.4%), followed by idiopathic (n = 256, 25.1%), microvascular (n = 212, 20.8%), and traumatic (n = 145, 14.2%). These four etiologies explained 92.5% of isolated trochlear palsy. Patients were mostly managed by ophthalmologists (n = 841, 82.5%), followed by neurologists (n = 380, 37.3%), emergency physicians (n = 197, 19.3%), neurosurgeons (n = 75, 7.4%), and others (n = 18, 1.8%). The etiologic distribution of isolated trochlear palsy in the current study did not differ from that of 2664 patients pooled from the previous studies. Conclusions: The proportion of etiologies of isolated trochlear palsy differs according to the age ranges of the patients and specialties involved in the management. The etiologic distribution of isolated trochlear palsy in the current study was comparable to the pooled result of previous reports.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3658-3665
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Neurology
Volume29
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • diplopia
  • double vision
  • etiology
  • trochlear palsy

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