Enlarged periventricular space and periventricular lesion extension on baseline brain MRI predicts poor neurological outcomes in cryptococcus meningoencephalitis

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Abstract

In Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis, brain MRI findings might reflect the phathomechanism of disease progression that is fungal accumulation in the peri-venular space and consequent invasion into the parenchyma. This study analyzed serial brain MRI findings of 76 patients with cryptococcus meningoencephalitis in association with the disease progression and outcomes. MRI parameters included the enlarged periventricular space (ePVS) score (range 0–8), periventricular lesion extension, cryptococcoma, and hydrocephalus. Clinical outcomes at 2-week, 10-week, and 6-month were evaluated using modified Rankin scale (mRS). At 6 months, 15 (19.7%) patients died and 34 (44.1%) had poor neurological outcomes (mRS scores > 2). At baseline, an ePVS score of ≥ 5 (Odds-ratio [OR]: 94.173, 95% confidence-interval [95%CI]: 7.507–1181.295, P <.001), periventricular lesion extension (OR: 51.965, 95%CI: 2.592–1041.673, P =.010), and presence of encephalitis feature (OR: 44.487, 95%CI: 1.689–1172.082, P =.023) were associated with 6-month poor outcomes. Presence of two or more risk factors among encephalitis feature, ePVS score ≥ 5, and periventricular lesion extension at baseline, was associated with 6-month poor outcomes (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.978, P <.001) and mortality (AUC: 0.836, P <.001). Disease progression was associated with interval development of cryptococcoma and hydrocephalus. Brain MRI findings might be useful in predicting outcomes and monitoring the progression of cryptococcus meningoencephalitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6446
JournalScientific Reports
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

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