Background and purpose: Multiply occurring intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) have been documented but rarely occur, and neither pathogenesis nor prognosis is clearly understood. This study was conducted to analyze angiographic characteristics of multiple dAVFs and to chronicle our treatment experience. Methods: Between April, 2002 and January, 2018, data prospectively collected from 310 patients with intracranial dAVFs were systematically reviewed, assessing clinical and anatomic outcomes of endovascular treatment in 32 patients with multiple dAVFs (≥ 2 fistulas each). Lesions were categorized as multifocal or diffuse type, depending on presentation, and further characterized as progressive or non-progressive disease. Results: Overall, 18 patients (56.3%) experienced aggressive presentations, including intracerebral hemorrhage or venous infarction. Cortical venous reflux (CVR) was observed in 26 patients (81.3%), and sinus thrombosis or occlusion was seen in 24 (75.0%). Clinical outcomes in patients with multifocal fistulas (n = 11) were excellent (100%), marked by a moderately high rate of complete occlusion (54.5%). Those with progressive disease (n = 10) regularly displayed certain angiographic findings, namely diffuse configuration (100%), sinus thrombosis (100%), and CVR (100%). Complete anatomic obliteration was achieved in 12 patients (37.5%), and in 26 patients (81.3%), clinical outcomes were favorable. Conclusion: Multiple dAVFs are typically aggressive at presentation, given strong associations with CVR and sinus thrombosis. In diffuse-type fistulas, the potential to recur or progress is high. Although definitive treatment poses a challenge, outcomes of endovascular therapeutics may be still optimized in this setting through strategic procedural modifications and careful follow-up monitoring.
- Dural arteriovenous fistula