Efficacy of distance training program for cardiopulmonary resuscitation utilizing smartphone application and home delivery system

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Aim of the study: Community cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education is important for laypersons. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, with social distancing, conventional face-to-face CPR training was unavailable. We developed a distance learning CPR training course (HEROS-Remote) using a smartphone application that monitors real-time chest compression quality and a home delivery collection system for mannikins. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the HEROS-Remote course by comparing chest compression quality with that of conventional CPR training. Methods: We applied layperson CPR education with HEROS-Remote and conventional education in Seoul during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both groups underwent a 2-min post-training chest compression test, and we tested non-inferiority. Chest compression depth, rate, complete recoil, and composite chest compression score was measured. Trainees completed a satisfaction survey on CPR education and delivery. The primary outcome was the mean chest compression depth. Results: A total of 180 trainees were enrolled, with 90 assigned to each training group. Chest compression depth of HEROS-Remote training showed non-inferiority to that of conventional training (67.4 vs. 67.8, p = 0.78), as well as composite chest compression score (92.7 vs. 95.5, p = 0.16). The proportions of adequate chest compression depth, chest compression rate, and chest compressions with complete chest recoil were similar in both training sessions. In the HEROS-Remote training, 90% of the trainees were satisfied with CPR training, and 96% were satisfied with the delivery and found it convenient. Conclusion: HEROS-Remote training was non-inferior to conventional CPR training in terms of chest compression quality. Distance learning CPR training using a smartphone application and mannikin delivery had high user satisfaction and was logistically feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-72
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • Basic life support
  • COVID-19
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Delivery
  • Distance learning
  • Smartphone application


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