Summary: We examined effects of smoking habit change on fracture risk in men. Long-term quitters and never smokers showed decreased risk for overall fractures, lumbar fractures, and other site fractures. Short-term quitters did not show decreased risk. Longer time since smoking cessation may lead to decreased fracture risk in men. Purpose: Cigarette smoking is a well-known modifiable risk factor of osteoporosis and fractures. This study investigated the effects of change in smoking habits on risks of all types of fractures in men using a nationwide health claims database. Methods: Retrospective study was performed using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort Data. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to estimate risks of all types of hospitalized fractures, hip fractures, lumbar fractures, and other site fractures (all other fractures excluding the lumbar and hip areas). Results: Compared to continued smokers, long-term quitters and never smokers showed decreased risk for all types of fractures (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–0.88 and aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.80–0.89, respectively). According to skeletal site, long-term quitters and never smokers showed decreased risk for lumbar fractures (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98 and aHR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73–0.99, respectively) and other site fractures (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.78–0.89 and aHR 0.85, 95% CI 0.81–0.90, respectively). Hip fractures were decreased in never smokers (aHR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.94). Short-term quitters did not show decreased risk for fractures. Conclusions: Longer time since smoking cessation in men may lead to decreased risk for fractures, especially lumbar and other site fractures. Physicians should counsel patients at risk for fractures both to quit smoking and to maintain abstinence from smoking. Further studies may be required to help comprehend how smoking cessation can affect fracture risk.
- Smoking cessation