STUDY OBJECTIVE: Binaural audio induces sedation and reduces pain and anxiety in surgical patients. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine requirement for adequate sedation during spinal anesthesia would be lower in patients listening to music with binaural sound than that in patients listening to plain or no music.
DESIGN: A triple-arm, assessor-blind, randomized controlled study.
SETTING: Operating room.
PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty-nine patients undergoing orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to music with binaural sound, plain music, or no music groups. Dexmedetomidine was infused for sedation during surgery. The loading infusion rate was 6 μg/kg predicted body weight (PBW)/h, followed by continuous infusion at 0.6 μg/kg PBW/hr. Loading was stopped after achieving adequate sedation, defined as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale score of 3. Infusion rate was adjusted every 30 min per the OAA/S scale.
MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcomes were the difference in the dexmedetomidine loading dose adjusted for the patient's PBW between (1) the binaural and plain music groups and (2) the binaural and control groups. Secondary outcomes were the total dose and total loading time of dexmedetomidine; Patient State Index; relative powers of the alpha, theta, and delta bands; recovery from sedation; and patient satisfaction score.
MAIN RESULTS: The final analyses included 184 patients. The PBW-adjusted dexmedetomidine loading dose was significantly lower in patients listening to music with binaural sound (1.15 ± 0.30 μg/kg PBW) than that in patients without music (1.33 ± 0.33 μg/kg PBW; mean difference, 0.18 μg/kg PBW; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.29; P = 0.002). However, the difference was not statistically significant when compared with the plain music group (1.26 ± 0.36 μg/kg PBW; mean difference, 0.11 μg/kg PBW; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.23; P = 0.070). Dexmedetomidine total dose, recovery from sedation, and patient satisfaction score showed no difference among the three groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with no music, music with binaural sound reduced the dexmedetomidine loading dose; however, this sedative-sparing effect of binaural sound was not found when compared to plain music.
- Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects
- Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects
- Hypnotics and Sedatives