Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of preexisting calcification in the inflow artery on maturation and flow volume of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Methods: Patients who underwent AVF creation for hemodialysis were prospectively recruited between March and November 2017. On preoperative duplex ultrasound, calcification in the arterial media within 5 cm of the planned anastomosis area was assessed. Clinical maturation was defined as the successful use of the fistula for ≥75% of the dialysis sessions during a month within 6 months after surgery. Radiological maturation was defined as a venous diameter of ≥0.4 cm and a flow volume of ≥500 mL/min. Flow volumes of the inflow artery and the cephalic vein were measured at 6 and 12 weeks after AVF creation. Results: Eighteen patients with calcification and 29 patients without calcification were enrolled in this study. There was no significant difference in the clinical and radiological maturation between the groups. The flow volume of the inflow artery, measured at 6 weeks postoperatively, was significantly higher in the noncalcification group than in the calcification group (P = 0.042). The flow volume of the inflow artery in the noncalcification group was increased at 12 weeks postoperatively (P = 0.091). Flow volume of the vein was higher in the noncalcification group than in the calcification group, although it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: In conclusions, preexisting arterial calcification did not adversely affect the AVF maturation. However, arterial calcification correlated with the flow volume of the inflow artery of AVF.