Purpose: Proteinuria is the second most common complication after hypertension after systemic administration of bevacizumab. Therefore we aimed to analyze the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection on proteinuria in patients with diabetes. Methods: Patients scheduled to receive IVB injection from May 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018, were prospectively enrolled. In total, 53 patients with diabetes (26 with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and 27 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and 37 patients without diabetes were included. Urine tests were performed within 1 month of and 7 ± 1 days after IVB injection. Urinary protein, creatinine, and albumin concentrations were quantitatively measured, and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were calculated from these data before and after IVB injection. Results: The mean urinary microalbumin concentrations and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio were significantly higher in patients with diabetes, both before and after IVB injection. There were no differences between patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. About 80% of patients with diabetes showed improved albuminuria or at least no harmful effect in terms of albuminuria. Patients with deteriorated baseline UACR showed more residual increase in UACR after IVB injection (P < 0.05 in all groups). Conclusions: Close monitoring of renal function after IVB might be needed in patients with diabetes according to the severity of nephropathy. Translational Relevance: Our results may provide information regarding the renal function of IVB-treated patients with diabetes.