Rapid diagnosis is essential for the control and prevention of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs). However, highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic systems have shown limited performance due to specific antibody scarcity. In this study, two novel specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for clade 220.127.116.11 H5Nx viruses were developed by using an immunogen from a reversed genetic influenza virus (RGV). These mAbs were combined with fluorescence europium nanoparticles and an optimized lysis buffer, which were further used for developing a fluorescent immunochromatographic rapid strip test (FICT) for early detection of H5Nx influenza viruses on chicken stool samples. The result indicates that the limit of detection (LoD) of the developed FICT was 40 HAU/mL for detection of HPAIV H5 clade 18.104.22.168b in spiked chicken stool samples, which corresponded to 4.78 × 104 RNA copies as obtained from real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An experimental challenge of chicken with H5N6 HPAIV is lethal for chicken three days post-infection (DPI). Interestingly, our FICT could detect H5N6 in stool samples at 2 DPI earlier, with 100% relative sensitivity in comparison with RT-PCR, and it showed 50% higher sensitivity than the traditional colloidal gold-based rapid diagnostic test using the same mAbs pair. In conclusion, our rapid diagnostic method can be utilized for the early detection of H5Nx 22.214.171.124 HPAIVs in avian fecal samples from poultry farms or for influenza surveillance in wild migratory birds.
- highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5Nx)
- human influenza virus infections
- mono-clonal antibody
- rapid fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test