Currently, the two primary patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of glioblastoma are established through intracranial or subcutaneous injection. In this study, a novel PDX model of glioblastoma was developed via intravitreal injection to facilitate tumor formation in a brain-mimicking microenvironment with improved visibility and fast development. Glioblastoma cells were prepared from the primary and recurrent tumor tissues of a 39-year-old female patient. To demonstrate the feasibility of intracranial tumor formation, U-87 MG and patient-derived glioblastoma cells were injected into the brain parenchyma of Balb/c nude mice. Unlike the U-87 MG cells, the patient-derived glioblastoma cells failed to form intracranial tumors until 6 weeks after tumor cell injection. In contrast, the patient-derived cells effectively formed intraocular tumors, progressing from plaques at 2 weeks to masses at 4 weeks after intravitreal injection. The in vivo tumors exhibited the same immunopositivity for human mitochondria, GFAP, vimentin, and nestin as the original tumors in the patient. Furthermore, cells isolated from the in vivo tumors also demonstrated morphology similar to that of their parental cells and immunopositivity for the same markers. Overall, a novel PDX model of glioblastoma was established via the intravitreal injection of tumor cells. This model will be an essential tool to investigate and develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of glioblastoma.