Development and relative validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean adults

Sohye Kim, Jung Sug Lee, Kyung Hee Hong, Hye Sun Yeom, Yeon Seo Nam, Ju Young Kim, Yoo Kyung Park

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Purpose: This study was implemented to develop and validate the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) to assess energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, minerals, and vitamins as well as fatty acids and alcohol in Korean adults. Methods: The SQ-FFQ consisted of 88 food items, and 12 food groups were selected based on information of frequently consumed foods from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Each portion size was categorized as one of three amounts: small (0.5 times), medium (1 time), and large (1.5 times). A total of 111 subjects finished 3-day diet records and the SQ-FFQ. The relative validity of SQ-FFQ was assessed by comparison with the 3-day diet records. Results: The mean nutrient intakes obtained from the SQ-FFQ were estimated to be greater than those of the two 3-day dietary records. Spearman's correlation coefficient between the two methods was the highest for energy (r = 0.583; p < 0.001) and lowest for saturated fatty acid (r = 0.121). Correlation coefficients were energy (r = 0.583; p < 0.001), carbohydrates (r = 0.500; p < 0.001), protein (r = 0.466; p < 0.001), fat (r = 0.411; p < 0.001), dietary fiber (r = 0.467; p < 0.001), alcohol (r = 0.527; p < 0.001), calcium (r = 0.409; p < 0.001), phosphorus (r = 0.499; p < 0.001), potassium (r = 0.418; p < 0.001), magnesium (r = 0.427; p < 0.001), and zinc (r = 0.464; p < 0.001), respectively, for all subjects. Conclusion: The developed SQ-FFQ in this study seems to be useful for estimating nutritional status, particularly energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, alcohol, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and zinc of Korean adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-119
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Nutrition and Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • 3-day diet records
  • Relative validity
  • Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ)

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