CT findings of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis: a systematic review and individual patient data analysis

Wonju Hong, P. Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Jean Pierre Gangneux, Florian Reizine, Philipp Koehler, Robbert G. Bentvelsen, María Luján Cuestas, Hamed Fakhim, Jung Im Jung, Young Kyung Lee, Nishil R. Dalsania, Ravi Karan Patti, Soon Ho Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Common CT abnormalities of pulmonary aspergillosis represent a cavity with air-meniscus sign, nodule, mass, and consolidation having an angio-invasive pattern. This study aims to conduct a systematic review and an individual patient-level image analysis of CT findings of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting CT findings of CAPA as of January 7, 2021. We summarized study-level clinical and CT findings of CAPA and collected individual patient CT images by inviting corresponding authors. The CT findings were categorized into four groups: group 1, typical appearance of COVID-19; group 2, indeterminate appearance of COVID-19; group 3, atypical for COVID-19 without cavities; and group 4, atypical for COVID-19 with cavities. In group 2, cases had only minor discrepant findings including solid nodules, isolated airspace consolidation with negligible ground-glass opacities, centrilobular micronodules, bronchial abnormalities, and cavities. Results: The literature search identified 89 patients from 25 studies, and we collected CT images from 35 CAPA patients (mean age 62.4 ± 14.6 years; 21 men): group 1, thirteen patients (37.1%); group 2, eight patients (22.9%); group 3, six patients (17.1%); and group 4, eight patients (22.9%). Eight of the 14 patients (57.1%) with an atypical appearance had bronchial abnormalities, whereas only one (7.1%) had an angio-invasive fungal pattern. In the study-level analysis, cavities were reported in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). Conclusion: CAPA can frequently manifest as COVID-19 pneumonia without common CT abnormalities of pulmonary aspergillosis. If abnormalities exist on CT images, CAPA may frequently accompany bronchial abnormalities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-18
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Imaging
StatePublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Aspergillosis
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus 2019
  • Tomography
  • X-ray computed


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