Although prostate cancer is clinically manageable during the early stages of progression, metastatic progression severely compromises the prognosis and leads to mortality. Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been connected to prostate cancer malignancy, and abolishing the STAT3 activity may diminish tumor growth and metastasis. However, its suppressor genes and pathways have not been well established. In this study, we show that promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) has a putative tumor-suppressor function in prostate cancer by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT3. Compared with a benign prostate, high-grade prostate cancer patient tissue was negatively correlated with PLZF expression. PLZF depletion accelerated proliferation and survival, migration, and invasion in human prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated a novel role of PLZF as the transcriptional regulator of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that inhibits the oncogenic JAKs–STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that the collapse of PLZF expression by the CCL3 derived from fibroblasts accelerates the cell migration and invasion properties of prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest that increasing PLZF could be an attractive strategy for suppressing prostate cancer metastasis as well as for tumor growth.
- Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger
- Prostate cancer
- Tumor-associated fibroblast
- Tumor-suppressor gene