Pregnant women were excluded from vaccination against Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) until September 2021 in South Korea. Although vaccination for pregnant women started in October 2021, vaccine acceptance in pregnant women is yet unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate COVID-19 vaccine acceptance during pregnancy and influencing factors. An anonymous survey was distributed in obstetrics departments to all pregnant or postpartum women, during the prenatal or postpartum visit. The proportion of self-reported COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy among 436 women was 26.6%. Pregnancy-related independent factors influencing maternal COVID-19 vaccination were “received vaccine information about from obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) doctors” (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.05–5.65), “cohabitant COVID-19 vaccination” (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.06–5.59), and “second trimester” (OR 7.35, 95% CI 1.54–35.15). In women who did not want to get vaccinated, the most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy was concern that COVID-19 vaccine might affect the fetus (91.7%, 243/266), followed by distrust in COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (42.6%, 113/266). This study showed that providing information about maternal COVID-19 vaccination, especially by OBGYN doctors, is crucial for increasing vaccination coverage in pregnant women. Providing updated evidence of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and safety in pregnant women may be also helpful for increasing vaccine acceptance.