We investigated the full-field electroretinographic (ERG) parameters with visual function and prognosis in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), according to its severity. 110 affected eyes of CRAO patients were enrolled and compared with fellow uninvolved eyes (N = 110) and normal control eyes (N = 30). B/A ratio and photopic negative response amplitude (PhNR) resulted in statistically significant differences among the CRAO subgroups according to the severity of retinal ischemia. Amplitudes of PhNR indicating ganglion cell function showed a more marked decline in mild to severe ischemia than those of the B-wave. In terms of visual function and outcome, baseline visual acuity and visual field defects were correlated with B/A ratio only (both, P <.001), whereas improvements in visual acuity and visual field were correlated with B-wave amplitude in dark-adapted 3.0 (P =.004 and.006), B/A ratio (P =.023 and.008), and PhNR amplitude (P <.001 and.004). These three ERG parameters were found to be credible predictive factors of visual prognosis. In conclusion, B-wave amplitude in dark-adapted 3.0, B/A ratio, and PhNR amplitude changes in eyes with CRAO are associated with baseline features related to the severity of retinal ischemia, and these are correlated with visual function and prognosis.