Background: Bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) is an effective treatment option to control haemoptysis in primary lung cancer. However, no studies have investigated optimal embolisation material for BAE in lung cancer patients. Thus, this study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of BAE performed using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles in primary lung cancer patients to determine which embolic material is better for patients with haemoptysis. Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and consent was waived. The rates of hemostasis, complications, procedure time, dose–area product, and haemoptysis-free survival were retrospectively compared between primary lung cancer (non-small cell [n = 111] and small cell [n = 11]) patients who underwent BAE using NBCA (n = 58) or PVA particles (n = 64) between January 2004 and December 2019. Predictors of recurrent haemoptysis were analysed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Among 122 patients (mean age, 66 ± 10 years; range 32–86 years; 103 men), more patients in the NBCA group (81.0%; 47 of 58) achieved complete hemostasis than did patients in the PVA group (53.1%; 34 of 64) (P = 0.002). No major complications were observed in either group. The procedure time (36.4 ± 21.6 vs. 56.3 ± 27.4 min, P < 0.001) was shorter, and the dose–area product (58.6 ± 64.0 vs. 233.5 ± 225.0 Gy*cm2, P < 0.001) was smaller in the NBCA group than in the PVA group. The median haemoptysis-free survival was 173.0 in the NBCA group compared with 20.0 days in the PVA group (P < 0.001). The PVA use (P < 0.001) and coagulopathy (P = 0.014) were independent predictors of shortened haemoptysis-free survival. Conclusion: BAE using NBCA showed significantly superior initial hemostasis with longer haemoptysis-free survival, shorter procedure time, and reduced radiation dose than BAE using PVA particles. The PVA use and coagulopathy were independent predictors of recurrent haemoptysis. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered.
- Bronchial artery embolisation
- Primary lung cancer