Insufficient evidence is available comparing mortality and cause of death between general hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and general non-HCM populations. We aimed to investigate how causes of death and mortality differ in subjects with and without HCM. Using the National Health Insurance Service database from 2009 to 2016, individuals who underwent health check-up(s) with or without a history of HCM were identified. Participants in the HCM group were matched at a 1:1 ratio with those in the non-HCM group using propensity scores calculated from the baseline covariates. Mortality rates and risks were compared between the groups. In total, 14,858 participants (7,429 each in the HCM and non-HCM groups) were followed up over a mean 4.4 ± 2.2 years (mean age, 61.0 years; male proportion, 66.8%). Compared to the non-HCM group, the HCM group showed a higher risk of all-cause and HCM-related mortality and a similar risk for non-cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.57 [1.38–1.78], 2.71 [1.92–3.83], and 1.04 [0.88–1.23], respectively). The sensitivity analyses consistently showed that the HCM group showed higher risks of all-cause and HCM-related mortality than the non-HCM group. The female participants with HCM were associated with an increasing trend of the risks of all-cause mortality but not HCM-related mortality compared to their male counterparts (p for interaction < 0.001 and 0.185, respectively). In conclusion, compared to the non-HCM population, the general HCM population showed higher risks of both all-cause and HCM-related mortality, but had a similar risk of non-cardiovascular mortality.
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