Combined effects of multiple prenatal exposure to pollutants on birth weight: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

Seulbi Lee, Yun Chul Hong, Hyesook Park, Yangho Kim, Mina Ha, Eunhee Ha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Increasing evidence shows that prenatal environmental exposures is a risk factor for restricted intrauterine growth. However, only a few studies have examined the effects of multiple environmental exposures on fetal growth. Objective: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure on multiple environmental pollutants (heavy metals, bisphenol, phthalates, and air pollutants) on birth weight. Methods: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health study is a prospective birth cohort comprising a total of 719 mother-child pairs, including 466 pairs undergoing early pregnancy exposure and 542 pairs of late pregnancy exposure. The concentrations of three heavy metals (mercury, lead, and cadmium) in the maternal blood samples were measured. The concentrations of three phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-n-butyl phthalate] and bisphenol A in maternal urine samples were measured. Daily exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated based on residence and averaged by gestational age. To assess the combined effect of multiple pollutants, principal components analysis (PCA) and supervised principal components analysis (SCPA) were conducted. Results: Based on PCA, the components representing PM10 and NO2 exposure during early pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight of −32.68 g (95% CI: -64.45 g to −0.91 g) per unit increase of the corresponding component. In SCPA model, the components representing NO2 exposure during early pregnancy and the combined exposure to mercury and lead during late pregnancy were negatively associated with birth weight of −46.63 g (95% CI: -90.65 g to −2.62 g) and −55.32 g (95% CI: -99.01 g to −11.64 g), respectively, per unit increase of the corresponding component. Conclusion: Based on our multi-pollutant model, PM10 and NO2 exposure in early pregnancy and the combined effect of Pb and Hg in late pregnancy were associated with reduced birth weight. Our results suggest that exposure to various pollutants during pregnancy has a significant cumulative effect on birth weight, even if each pollutant is at a level below the concentration required for direct effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108832
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume181
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2020

Fingerprint

Environmental Health
Birth Weight
Principal component analysis
Mothers
Health
pregnancy
Pregnancy
pollutant
Heavy Metals
Principal Component Analysis
Mercury
phthalate
Nitrogen Dioxide
Environmental Pollutants
Air Pollutants
Particulate Matter
principal component analysis
Environmental Exposure
Metabolites
Cadmium

Keywords

  • Birth weight
  • Chemical
  • Mixture
  • Multiple pollutants
  • Prenatal exposure
  • Prospective cohort
  • Supervised principal components analysis

Cite this

@article{506f296bec5b4053a98c96665a1790c8,
title = "Combined effects of multiple prenatal exposure to pollutants on birth weight: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study",
abstract = "Background: Increasing evidence shows that prenatal environmental exposures is a risk factor for restricted intrauterine growth. However, only a few studies have examined the effects of multiple environmental exposures on fetal growth. Objective: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure on multiple environmental pollutants (heavy metals, bisphenol, phthalates, and air pollutants) on birth weight. Methods: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health study is a prospective birth cohort comprising a total of 719 mother-child pairs, including 466 pairs undergoing early pregnancy exposure and 542 pairs of late pregnancy exposure. The concentrations of three heavy metals (mercury, lead, and cadmium) in the maternal blood samples were measured. The concentrations of three phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-n-butyl phthalate] and bisphenol A in maternal urine samples were measured. Daily exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated based on residence and averaged by gestational age. To assess the combined effect of multiple pollutants, principal components analysis (PCA) and supervised principal components analysis (SCPA) were conducted. Results: Based on PCA, the components representing PM10 and NO2 exposure during early pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight of −32.68 g (95{\%} CI: -64.45 g to −0.91 g) per unit increase of the corresponding component. In SCPA model, the components representing NO2 exposure during early pregnancy and the combined exposure to mercury and lead during late pregnancy were negatively associated with birth weight of −46.63 g (95{\%} CI: -90.65 g to −2.62 g) and −55.32 g (95{\%} CI: -99.01 g to −11.64 g), respectively, per unit increase of the corresponding component. Conclusion: Based on our multi-pollutant model, PM10 and NO2 exposure in early pregnancy and the combined effect of Pb and Hg in late pregnancy were associated with reduced birth weight. Our results suggest that exposure to various pollutants during pregnancy has a significant cumulative effect on birth weight, even if each pollutant is at a level below the concentration required for direct effect.",
keywords = "Birth weight, Chemical, Mixture, Multiple pollutants, Prenatal exposure, Prospective cohort, Supervised principal components analysis",
author = "Seulbi Lee and Hong, {Yun Chul} and Hyesook Park and Yangho Kim and Mina Ha and Eunhee Ha",
year = "2020",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2019.108832",
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journal = "Environmental Research",
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Combined effects of multiple prenatal exposure to pollutants on birth weight : The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. / Lee, Seulbi; Hong, Yun Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 181, 108832, 02.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Combined effects of multiple prenatal exposure to pollutants on birth weight

T2 - The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

AU - Lee, Seulbi

AU - Hong, Yun Chul

AU - Park, Hyesook

AU - Kim, Yangho

AU - Ha, Mina

AU - Ha, Eunhee

PY - 2020/2

Y1 - 2020/2

N2 - Background: Increasing evidence shows that prenatal environmental exposures is a risk factor for restricted intrauterine growth. However, only a few studies have examined the effects of multiple environmental exposures on fetal growth. Objective: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure on multiple environmental pollutants (heavy metals, bisphenol, phthalates, and air pollutants) on birth weight. Methods: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health study is a prospective birth cohort comprising a total of 719 mother-child pairs, including 466 pairs undergoing early pregnancy exposure and 542 pairs of late pregnancy exposure. The concentrations of three heavy metals (mercury, lead, and cadmium) in the maternal blood samples were measured. The concentrations of three phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-n-butyl phthalate] and bisphenol A in maternal urine samples were measured. Daily exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated based on residence and averaged by gestational age. To assess the combined effect of multiple pollutants, principal components analysis (PCA) and supervised principal components analysis (SCPA) were conducted. Results: Based on PCA, the components representing PM10 and NO2 exposure during early pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight of −32.68 g (95% CI: -64.45 g to −0.91 g) per unit increase of the corresponding component. In SCPA model, the components representing NO2 exposure during early pregnancy and the combined exposure to mercury and lead during late pregnancy were negatively associated with birth weight of −46.63 g (95% CI: -90.65 g to −2.62 g) and −55.32 g (95% CI: -99.01 g to −11.64 g), respectively, per unit increase of the corresponding component. Conclusion: Based on our multi-pollutant model, PM10 and NO2 exposure in early pregnancy and the combined effect of Pb and Hg in late pregnancy were associated with reduced birth weight. Our results suggest that exposure to various pollutants during pregnancy has a significant cumulative effect on birth weight, even if each pollutant is at a level below the concentration required for direct effect.

AB - Background: Increasing evidence shows that prenatal environmental exposures is a risk factor for restricted intrauterine growth. However, only a few studies have examined the effects of multiple environmental exposures on fetal growth. Objective: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure on multiple environmental pollutants (heavy metals, bisphenol, phthalates, and air pollutants) on birth weight. Methods: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health study is a prospective birth cohort comprising a total of 719 mother-child pairs, including 466 pairs undergoing early pregnancy exposure and 542 pairs of late pregnancy exposure. The concentrations of three heavy metals (mercury, lead, and cadmium) in the maternal blood samples were measured. The concentrations of three phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-n-butyl phthalate] and bisphenol A in maternal urine samples were measured. Daily exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated based on residence and averaged by gestational age. To assess the combined effect of multiple pollutants, principal components analysis (PCA) and supervised principal components analysis (SCPA) were conducted. Results: Based on PCA, the components representing PM10 and NO2 exposure during early pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight of −32.68 g (95% CI: -64.45 g to −0.91 g) per unit increase of the corresponding component. In SCPA model, the components representing NO2 exposure during early pregnancy and the combined exposure to mercury and lead during late pregnancy were negatively associated with birth weight of −46.63 g (95% CI: -90.65 g to −2.62 g) and −55.32 g (95% CI: -99.01 g to −11.64 g), respectively, per unit increase of the corresponding component. Conclusion: Based on our multi-pollutant model, PM10 and NO2 exposure in early pregnancy and the combined effect of Pb and Hg in late pregnancy were associated with reduced birth weight. Our results suggest that exposure to various pollutants during pregnancy has a significant cumulative effect on birth weight, even if each pollutant is at a level below the concentration required for direct effect.

KW - Birth weight

KW - Chemical

KW - Mixture

KW - Multiple pollutants

KW - Prenatal exposure

KW - Prospective cohort

KW - Supervised principal components analysis

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JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

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