Combined Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Diabetes

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Abstract

Background: We investigated the combined effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Patients with diabetes who participated in health screenings from 2009 to 2011 were included. The fatty liver index (FLI) was used as a surrogate marker for NAFLD. Results: During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 40,863 incidents of myocardial infarction (MI), 58,427 strokes, and 116,977 deaths were reported in 1,607,232 patients with type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for conventional risk factors, patients with CKD and NAFLD showed the highest risk of MI and stroke (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42–1.57 and stroke, HR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.41–1.54, respectively) compared with those without either CKD or NAFLD. Both overall and cardiovascular mortality were highest in the CKD/NAFLD group compared with other groups (HR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.94–2.06, and HR = 2.20; 95% CI: 2.07–2.35, respectively). Advanced liver fibrosis was significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD in patients with NAFLD. Proteinuria was significantly associated with incidence of CVD events in patients with CKD. Conclusions: The combination of CKD and NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of CVD and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Close monitoring and appropriate management of CKD and NAFLD may be warranted to prevent CVD in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1245
JournalBiomedicines
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • chronic kidney disease
  • fatty liver
  • myocardial infarction
  • stroke
  • type 2 diabetes

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