Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have been actively researched for polyp detection in colonoscopy. To be an effective system, it is important to detect additional polyps that may be easily missed by endoscopists. Sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) are a precursor to colorectal cancer with a relatively higher miss rate, owing to their flat and subtle morphology. Colonoscopy CADe systems could help endoscopists; however, the current systems exhibit a very low performance for detecting SSLs. We propose a polyp detection system that reflects the morphological characteristics of SSLs to detect unrecognized or easily missed polyps. To develop a well-trained system with imbalanced polyp data, a generative adversarial network (GAN) was used to synthesize high-resolution whole endoscopic images, including SSL. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on GAN-synthesized images ensure that synthetic images are realistic and include SSL endoscopic features. Moreover, traditional augmentation methods were used to compare the efficacy of the GAN augmentation method. The CADe system augmented with GAN synthesized images showed a 17.5% improvement in sensitivity on SSLs. Consequently, we verified the potential of the GAN to synthesize high-resolution images with endoscopic features and the proposed system was found to be effective in detecting easily missed polyps during a colonoscopy.