Ethnopharmacological relevance: Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (C. obtusa) has been used as folk medicine in East Asia and has been reported to alleviate inflammatory diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa remain unclear. Aim of the study: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of natural products have been studied for decades, it is still important to identify the potential anti-inflammatory effects of natural sources. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanism of C. obtusa leaf extracts. Material &methods: The cell viability was determined by MTT and crystal violet staining. NO production in the supernatant was measured using Griess reagent. The cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. Secreted cytokines were analyzed using ELISA kit and cytokine array kit. mRNA expression from the GSE9632 database set. Z-scores were calculated for each gene and visualized by heat map. Results: Among the extracts of C. obtusa obtained with different extraction methods, the 99% ethanol leaf extract (CO99EL) strongly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and Janus kinase/signaling transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, CO99EL strongly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-27, and C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-1 production and directly inhibited LPS-induced JAK/STAT phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that CO99EL significantly prevents LPS-induced macrophage activation by inhibiting the JAK/STAT axis. Therefore, we suggest the use of C. obtusa extracts as therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.
- Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & zucc.) endl. (C. obtusa)
- Inflammatory response
- Janus kinase (JAK)
- Pro-inflammatory mediators
- Signaling transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)