Expanded hemodialysis (HDx) with medium cutoff (MCO) membranes, which remove middle-to-large molecules well, may be a good option to replace online hemodiafiltration (online-HDF). To provide more evidence, this randomized controlled trial compared several cardiovascular parameters between patients undergoing HDx and online-HDF. Eighty patients undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis were randomly assigned to receive either HDx with a Theranova membrane (n = 43) or online-HDF (n = 37). The primary endpoints were changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), echocardiographic parameters, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores over 1 year, and the secondary endpoints included blood cardiovascular biomarkers, mortality, and patient-reported outcomes. A linear mixed model and log-rank test were used to estimate the group differences. 65 patients had completed the trial. The changes in baPWV and echocardiographic parameters did not differ between the two groups. The CAC scores remained stable in the online-HDF group, whereas an increasing trend was shown in the HDx group (P = 0.012). Other endpoints, including cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities, were similar between the two groups. The changes in cardiovascular parameters did not differ between HDx with an MCO membrane and online-HDF. However, attention may be needed in patients with high CAC scores or scores with an increasing tendency when online-HDF is replaced with HDx with an MCO membrane.