Purpose: To determine the survival rates and clinical-pathologic and imaging factors associated with recurrence in women with breast cancer detected at screening ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. A retrospective review of the databases of four institutions identified 501 women (median age, 47 years; range, 27-74 years) with breast cancer (425 invasive cancers and 76 ductal carcinoma in situ) detected at screening US between January 2004 and March 2011. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were estimated, and the clinical-pathologic and imaging data were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to determine factors associated with recurrence. Results: At a median follow-up of 7.0 years (range, 5.0-12.1 years), 15 (3.0%) recurrences were detected: five in ipsilateral breast and 10 in contralateral breast. The 5-year OS and RFS rates were 100% and 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.8%, 99.2%), respectively. In patients with invasive cancers, age younger than 40 years (hazard ratio: 3.632 [95% CI: 1.099, 11.998]; P = .032), the triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio: 7.498 [95% CI: 2.266, 24.816]; P = .001), and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A lesions (hazard ratio: 5.113 [95% CI: 1.532, 17.195]; P = .008) were associated with recurrence. Conclusion: Women with breast cancers detected at screening US have excellent outcomes, with a 5-year RFS rate of 98.0%. However, in patients with invasive breast cancer, age younger than 40 years, the triple-negative subtype, and BI-RADS category 4A lesions were associated with recurrence.