We evaluated whether breast arterial calcification (BAC) is associated with the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic women. This retrospective observational cohort study analysed asymptomatic women from the BBC registry. In 126 consecutive women (age, 54.5 ± 7.0 years) who underwent BAC evaluation and repeated coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) examinations, the coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) and segment stenosis score (SSS) were evaluated to assess the progression of coronary arterial calcification (CAC) and coronary atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). CAC and CAP progression were observed in 42 (33.3%) and 26 (20.6%) women, respectively (median interscan time, 4.3 years), and were associated with the presence of BAC and a higher BAC score at baseline. Women with BAC demonstrated higher CAC and CAP progression rates and showed higher chances for CAC and CAP progression during follow-up (p < 0.001 for both). In multivariable analyses, the BAC score remained independently associated with both CAC and CAP progression rates after adjustment for clinical risk factors (β = 0.087, p = 0.029; and β = 0.020, p = 0.010, respectively) and with additional adjustment for baseline CACS (β = 0.080, p = 0.040; and β = 0.019, p = 0.012, respectively) or SSS (β = 0.079, p = 0.034; and β = 0.019, p = 0.011, respectively). Thus, BAC may be related to the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its evaluation may facilitate decision-making.