The current outbreak of the beta-coronavirus (beta-Cov) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in December 2019. No specific antiviral treatments or vaccines are currently available. A recent study has reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is associated with neutrophil-specific plasma membrane rupture, and release excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and extracellular DNAs (eDNAs). This mechanism involves the activation of NETosis, a neutrophil-specific programmed cell death, which is believed to play a crucial role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Further progression of the disease can cause uncontrolled inflammation, leading to the initiation of cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and sepsis. Herein, it is reported that DNase-I-coated melanin-like nanospheres (DNase-I pMNSs) mitigate sepsis-associated NETosis dysregulation, thereby preventing further progression of the disease. Recombinant DNase-I and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are used as coatings to promote the lengthy circulation and dissolution of NET structure. The data indicate that the application of bioinspired DNase-I pMNSs reduce neutrophil counts and NETosis-related factors in the plasma of SARS-CoV-2 sepsis patients, alleviates systemic inflammation, and attenuates mortality in a septic mouse model. Altogether, the findings suggest that these nanoparticles have potential applications in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-related illnesses and other beta-CoV-related diseases.