[68Ga]PSMA-11 is a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic PET imaging. Its application can be extended to targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT). In this study, we characterize the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of [68Ga]PSMA-11 in PSMA-positive and negative (22Rv1 and PC3, respectively) tumor-bearing mice and subsequently estimated its internal radiation dosimetry via voxel-level dosimetry using a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the absorbed dose in the tumor directly. Consequently, this approach overcomes the drawbacks of the conventional organ-level (or phantom-based) method. The kidneys and urinary bladder both showed substantial accumulation of [68Ga]PSMA-11 without exhibiting a washout phase during the study. For the tumor, a peak concentration of 4.5 ± 0.7 %ID/g occurred 90 min after [68Ga]PSMA-11 injection. The voxel- and organ-level methods both determined that the highest absorbed dose occurred in the kidneys (0.209 ± 0.005 Gy/MBq and 0.492 ± 0.059 Gy/MBq, respectively). Using voxel-level dosimetry, the absorbed dose in the tumor was estimated as 0.024 ± 0.003 Gy/MBq. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of [68Ga]PSMA-11 in various organs of subcutaneous prostate cancer xenograft model mice were consistent with reported data for prostate cancer patients. Therefore, our data supports the use of voxel-level dosimetry in TRT to deliver personalized dosimetry considering patient-specific heterogeneous tissue compositions and activity distributions.