Automated Detection of Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Events Based on 60 GHz Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Radar Using Convolutional Recurrent Neural Networks: A Preliminary Report of a Prospective Cohort Study

Jae Won Choi, Dong Hyun Kim, Dae Lim Koo, Yangmi Park, Hyunwoo Nam, Ji Hyun Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Seung No Hong, Gwangsoo Jang, Sungmook Lim, Baekhyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Radar is a promising non-contact sensor for overnight polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This preliminary study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of the automated detection of apnea-hypopnea events for OSA diagnosis based on 60 GHz frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar using convolutional recurrent neural networks. The dataset comprised 44 participants from an ongoing OSA cohort, recruited from July 2021 to April 2022, who underwent overnight PSG with a radar sensor. All PSG recordings, including sleep and wakefulness, were included in the dataset. Model development and evaluation were based on a five-fold cross-validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the classification of 1-min segments ranged from 0.796 to 0.859. Depending on OSA severity, the sensitivities for apnea-hypopnea events were 49.0–67.6%, and the number of false-positive detections per participant was 23.4–52.8. The estimated apnea-hypopnea index showed strong correlations (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.805–0.949) and good to excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.776–0.929) with the ground truth. There was substantial agreement between the estimated and ground truth OSA severity (kappa statistics = 0.648–0.736). The results demonstrate the potential of radar as a standalone screening tool for OSA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7177
JournalSensors
Volume22
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • convolutional recurrent neural network
  • deep learning
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • polysomnography
  • radar

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