To elucidate the association between renal hyperfiltration (RHF) and incident proteinuria, the data from 11,559,520 Korean adults who had undergone health screenings 3 times between 2009 and 2014 and had glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and negative dipstick test for proteinuria at baseline, were retrospectively analyzed. GFR was estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation based on serum creatinine, and RHF was defined as GFR >95th percentile adjusted for sex, age, body size, and diabetes and/or hypertension medication. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident proteinuria in the RHF was 1.083 (95% CI, 1.069~1.097) compared to that of the non-RHF with Cox regression model. The association between RHF and incident proteinuria was not only in diabetic but also in non-diabetic subjects. This association was not observed in women (p for interaction <0.001). A reverse J-shaped association was found between the adjusted GFR slope and aHR of incident proteinuria. Both lower and higher GFR were associated with incident proteinuria in men. In conclusion, RHF was associated with incident proteinuria in men. Clinical studies are necessary to study whether the alleviation of RHF can prevent incident proteinuria.