Background: Children are vulnerable to air pollution, which is known to be related to the recent increasing trend of allergic disease. Objective: To investigate the effects of air pollution on respiratory allergic diseases in school children. Methods: A prospective survey of parental responses to International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires, together with allergy evaluation, was conducted in 1743 school children selected from metropolitan cities and industrial areas during a 2-year period. Individual exposure to air pollution was estimated by using a geometric information system with the 5-year mean concentration of air pollutants. Results: A total of 1,340 children (male:female ratio, 51.4:48.6) with a mean (SD) age of 6.84 (0.51) years were included in the analysis. Each child underwent allergy evaluation at the time of enrollment and at a 2-year follow-up. After 2 years, the 12-month prevalence of wheezing was significantly decreased, whereas the lifetime prevalence of allergic rhinitis showed a significant increase. Ozone exposure was significantly associated with the 12-month prevalence of wheeze (odds ratio per 5 ppb, 1.372; 95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.852). Ozone was also associated with allergic rhinitis in children who reside in industrial areas. In addition, significant positive associations between ozone and the rate of newly developed sensitization to outdoor allergen were found (P for trend =.007). Conclusion: Exposure to ozone was associated with current wheeze and allergic rhinitis. An increased rate of newly developed sensitization to outdoor allergen by ozone may explain the association.