Global efforts to identify groups at high risk for schistosomiasis have mainly concentrated on identifying their geographical distribution. Investigations on the socioeconomic characteristics of high-risk groups are relatively scarce. This study aimed to explore the associations between schistosomiasis among students and their parents’ occupations. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted targeting 105,167 students in 1,772 primary schools across Sudan in 2017. From these students, 100,726 urine and 96,634 stool samples were collected to test for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection. A multi-level mixed effect analysis was used with age and sex as fixed factors, and school as a random factor. The odd ratios (ORs) of practicing open defecation among farmers’ children were almost 5 times higher than their counterparts whose parents were government officials (OR=4.97, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 4.57-5.42, P < 0.001). The ORs of contacting water bodies for watering livestock among farmers’ children were more than 4 times higher than those of children whose parents were government officials (OR= 4.59, 95% CIs: 4.02-5.24, P < 0.001). This study shows that schistosomiasis represents a disease of poverty and that farmers’ children constituted a high-risk group.
- Parents’ occupation