This study was conducted as a part of a larger study to identify the needs of a maternal and early childhood home visit program that the South Korean central government has begun to expand nationwide. This survey measured the distress of mothers with children aged 2 years or younger during the transition into motherhood using the Being a Mother scale (BaM-13) and compared the stress levels for each question with those of existing studies in other countries. The survey results revealed that the mean BaM-13 score of the 350 participants was 17.09 (SD = 6.81), with 87.7% showing very high levels of maternal distress, indicated by a score of 9 or above in BaM-13. The item from the BaM-13 with the highest response rate of 2 or 3 points (sum of the percentage of those who answered 2 and 3 points) was “I have missed the life I had before I became pregnant with this baby/toddler,” to which 80.8% of the respondents agreed. The percentage of South Korean mothers who answered 2 or 3 points was higher for every item on the BaM-13 than that of Australian mothers. A comparison of the total BaM-13 score and 3 factors (child experience, adult’s experience, and emotional closeness) of the BaM-13 according to the participants’ characteristics revealed that discrepancies in women’s sociodemographic factors (including smoking and alcohol consumption behaviors) were not significant, whereas differences in the total BaM-13 score and the 3 factors of the BaM-13 according to the mothers’ scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were noticeable. The high level of maternal distress observed in this study should be reflected in the nurse-led maternal and early childhood home visit program that the South Korean central government is expanding across the country.