Most epidemiologic studies of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been conducted in North America and Europe. Moreover, there are limited data concerning the cause of death and cause-specific mortality rate of IPF patients in population-based studies. We analyzed information from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from 2006 to 2016. Patients with a diagnosis code of IPF were extracted from the database and we included those who satisfied the narrow definition of IPF diagnosis. Age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected at a case-to-control rate of 1:3. We included 42,777 patients newly diagnosed with IPF during the study period. Their mean age was 64.6 years, and 65.4% were male. The age-standardized mortality rates were 85.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 84.45–86.89) per 1000 person-years. The survival rates of IPF patients 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years after IPF diagnosis were 84.5%, 77.4%, 71.9%, 62.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio of IPF patients compared to that of the normal population was 4.66. The leading cause of death in IPF patients was respiratory causes, followed by cancer. Patients with IPF in Korea showed significantly higher mortality compared to the general population.