Aggravation of Ankle Varus Incongruency Following Total Knee Replacement Correcting ≥10° of Genu Varum Deformity: A Radiographic Assessment

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the change in ankle varus incongruencies following total knee replacement (TKR) in patients with preoperative genu varum deformity of ≥10°. Methods: The study cohort was composed of patients who underwent TKR in a single institution for knee osteoarthritis with preoperative genu varum deformity of ≥10° and concomitant varus ankle incongruencies. Eight radiographic measurements were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively: mechanical tibiofemoral angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle, lateral distal tibial angle, tibial plafond inclination, talar inclination, tibiotalar tilt angle (TTTA), and tibia-mechanical axis angle. Of these, TTTA represented the quantitative degree of ankle joint incongruency. Results: A total of 110 patients (male = 2; female = 108) were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 68.9 (standard deviation [SD] 7.2) years at the time of TKR. All radiographic measurements showed significant changes postoperatively, representing the appropriate correction of genu varum deformity and restoration of the mechanical axis. Nineteen patients (17.3%) showed postoperative decrease in TTTA, 2 (1.8%) remained the same, and 89 (80.9%) showed increase. Overall, mean preoperative and postoperative TTTA were 3.3° (SD 2.2°) and 4.7° (SD 2.9°), respectively (P < .001), representing the aggravation of varus ankle incongruencies. Conclusion: Varus ankle incongruencies showed aggravation following TKR despite correction of genu varum deformity and restoration of the mechanical axis. This could be an important cause of postoperative increase or development of ankle pain following TKR. Therefore, patients with preoperative varus ankle incongruencies need to be warned of possible aggravation of ankle symptoms and be evaluated before TKR. Level of Evidence: Prognostic level III.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3305-3310
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
Volume35
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Keywords

  • aggravation
  • ankle varus incongruency
  • genu varum
  • radiograph
  • total knee replacement

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