Age-associated changes in chronic rhinosinusitis endotypes

Gwanghui Ryu, Hun Jong Dhong, Minsu Park, Na Young Hwang, Dong Kyu Kim, Hyo Yeol Kim, Seung Kyu Chung, Chae Seo Rhee, Seong Ho Cho, Sang Duk Hong, Dae Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Immunologic function in innate and adaptive immunity changes with the ageing process. Thus, age-related cytokine profiles in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) need to be investigated for precision medicine. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize age-related changes in immunologic profiles according to CRS subtypes. Methods: Subjects in control (n = 29), CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP, n = 86), and CRS with nasal polyps (eosinophilic NP: ENP, n = 81; non-eosinophilic NP: NENP, n = 113) were enrolled in this study. Twenty markers for type 1/2/3 inflammation and other inflammatory processes were measured in homogenates of sinonasal tissues and statistically analysed. Results: In control tissues, type 2/3 and proinflammatory mediators showed an inverse correlation with age. CRSsNP and NENP showed an age-related increase in type 2 cytokines and a decline in type 3 cytokines. Interestingly, the age-related decrease in type 3 mediators was associated with those of CT scores in NENP. ENP showed an age-related increase in type 3 cytokines with type 2 mediators sustained at high levels. Smokers with ENP demonstrated age-associated increases in type 1/2/3 mediators as well as CT scores. These age-related patterns in each CRS were confirmed by statistically adjusting atopy status, smoking history, and disease duration. Conclusion: Age-associated cytokine changes differed among CRS subtypes and control tissues. CRSsNP and NENP demonstrated a decline in type 3 mediators and increase in type 2 mediators, whereas type 3 mediators increased with age in ENP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-596
Number of pages12
JournalClinical and Experimental Allergy
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2020



  • age
  • cytokine
  • endotype
  • rhinosinusitis

Cite this

Ryu, G., Dhong, H. J., Park, M., Hwang, N. Y., Kim, D. K., Kim, H. Y., Chung, S. K., Rhee, C. S., Cho, S. H., Hong, S. D., & Kim, D. W. (2020). Age-associated changes in chronic rhinosinusitis endotypes. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 50(5), 585-596.