Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency with high morbidity and mortality. We herein investigated clinical features, etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in adults from a single tertiary center. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with laboratory-confirmed bacterial meningitis from 2007 to 2016. Patients with recent neurosurgery, head trauma, or indwelling neurosurgical devices were classified as having healthcare-related meningitis. Causative microorganisms were identified by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood cultures, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcomes. We identified 161 cases (age, 55.9 ± 15.5 years; male, 50.9%), of which 43 had community-acquired and 118 had healthcare-related meningitis. CSF and blood culture positivity rates were 91.3% and 30.4%, respectively. In community-acquired meningitis patients, Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.6%) was the most common isolate, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.6%) and Listeria monocytogenes (11.6%). The susceptibility rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftriaxone, cefepime, and meropenem were 85.7%, 81.3%, and 100%, respectively. Among healthcare-related meningitis patients, the most common bacterial isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (28.0%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%) and Enterobacter spp. (13.6%). Neurological complications occurred in 39.1% of the patients and the 3-month mortality rate was 14.8%. After adjusting for covariates, unfavorable outcome was significantly associated with old age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.06), neurological complications (OR 4.53, 95% CI 1.57–13.05), and initial Glasgow coma scale ≤ 8 (OR 19.71, 95% CI 4.35–89.40). Understanding bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility may help optimize antimicrobial therapy in adult bacterial meningitis.